The Four Commanderies of Han China in Korea  한사군  漢四郡





After the Han Dynasty defeated the Wiman Choson and set up Four Commanderies of Han ( 한사군 ) : Lo-lang or Lelang 樂浪郡, Chen-fan or Zhen-fan 真番郡, Lin-tun 臨屯郡 and Hsuan-tu .In  108 B.C. the Han Dynasty established three commanderies of Lo-lang, Chen-fan and Lin-tun within the former domain of Wiman Choson, which had been subjugated the same year . The governors of the commandaries were Chinese, and many Chinese colonists came to the Lo-lang commandery to live .



 Four Commanderies of Han

The Four Commanderies of Han (漢四郡, 한사군) are Lelang, Lintun, Xuantu and Zhenfan commanderies in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula.


These commandaries were drastically reduced in size in a mere 26 years of being formed and  soon only Lo-lang was the only commandery in Korea ruled by China .Tai-fang commandery was formed around 204 A.D from the southern half of Lo-lang commandery .Lo-lang and Tai-fang lasted till near the end of the Western Chin dynasty in 313 A.D. The gradual reduction in size of the commandaries was due to resistance of the native population . Tai-fang was captured by rising Korean state of Paekche to the south and the growing Korean state of Koguryo seized Lo-lang .The impact of the Chinese cammandaries on the local population was very great, bring advanced metal-working skills, laws, systems of administration,religion and philosophy.  The more elite segments of the local society took to using Chinese style eating and drinking utensils




Possible image of Chinese officials, from

tomb near the Lo-lang commandery



Tomb of a Chinese governor of the Taifang Commandery


 Lolang Commandery


Ruins of the Lolang Commandery and roof tile

Of the four Han Chinese provincial commands, Lolang was the most enduring and influential, the center for colonization in this peripheral region of their control. Although this commandery was operated primarily for military reasons, it was the means by which Chinese culture, writing, technology, and govemment had their first big influence on Koreans. The greatest effect was localized in the capital area near P'yongyang, but slowly seeped into the rest of the peninsula. However, with the emergence of the Koguryo state, in the mid-Amnok River region, and the in­creased vigor of Chin, Lolang increasingly had trouble administering the colony and safe­guarding its borders. In A.D. 313, Koguryo drove the Chinese out of the Old Choson territory, reestablishing Korean control.






 Bronze Age Korea


 3 Kingdoms

57BC-668 AD